The Five Solas are five Latin phrases that represent the core positions held by those who adhere to the Protestant Reformation that happened in the 16th century. They are more commonly recognized within the Reformed (Calvinist) perspective. They are Sola Scriptura, Sola Christus, Sola Gratia, Sola Fide, and Sola Deo Gloria.
1. Sola Scriptura--Scripture alone: This does not mean that tradition or councils are not considered. It means that the Scriptures alone are the final and the highest authority. Everything that the Scriptures address are to be used as the final word on that topic. All things that we learn from other sources must be compared to Scripture, and if they do not match Scripture or if they contradict Scripture, then we are not to affirm them. The Bible says not to exceed what is written, (1 Corinthians 4:6).
2. Sola Christus--Christ alone: This position means that Christ Jesus is the only means of salvation (John 14:6), the only mediator (1 Timothy 2:5), and that Jesus is the only human revelation of God. In other words, God has revealed himself in the person of Jesus, and no other person who's ever lived is God in flesh as Jesus is, (John 1:1, 14).
3. Sola Gratia--Grace alone: This means that we are saved from our sins and damnation by the unmerited grace of God alone without any of our works. Grace is the completely unmerited, undeserved favor of God that he bestows upon us. The grace of God is completely motivated out of his own character and is his kind intention and merciful action upon various individuals. Thus, we are saved from his righteous judgment by his unmerited and under earned favor, and there is nothing that we can or have done that can move God to be gracious to us.
4. Sola Fide--Faith alone: This means that we are saved from our sins by faith alone in Christ Alone and not by faith and anything we do whether it be baptism, church membership, good works, sincerity, or anything. God is the proper object of faith. When we have faith in the work of Christ and his sacrifice on the cross, we are justified (Romans 5:1).
5. Soli Deo Gloria--the Glory of God alone: This means that God alone is the one who is to receive all the glory. He alone is the author and finisher of our salvation and works all good things through our lives. He has revealed himself in the person of Jesus in great humility and love died on the cross, bearing our sin (1 Peter 2:24). So that we might enjoy his presence forever. We are to live for him and glorify him (Isaiah 43:7).